10.00 P.M., Peterhof: Buchanan delivers King George’s urgent message to the Tsar. Even if it would have had some influence it has come too late.The Tsar replies reporting Germany’s declaration of war and says he hopes Britain will support France and Russia in fighting to maintain the balance of power in Europe.He also says that […]
7.00 P.M.: Pourtalès calls on Sazonov and asks him whether the Russian Government is ready to give a favourable answer to the ultimatum presented the night before.Sazonov replies in the negative and says Russia wants to continue talks.Pourtalès asks him twice more but to no avail. He then hands over the German declaration of war. […]
Early afternoon: The Tsar responds to the Kaiser’s last message. He says “Understand you are obliged to mobilise but wish to have some guarantee from you that these measures do not mean war and that we shall continue negotiating for the benefit of our countries and universal peace” [N5].
The Tsar sends message to the Kaiser. He understands why he is mobilising but wishes to have the same guarantee from the Kaiser that he has given the Kaiser, that mobilisation does not mean war. 7.00 P.M. GERMAN AMBASSADOR HANDS OVER THE DECLARATION OF WAR ON RUSSIA.
Midnight: Pourtalès calls on Sazonov to deliver the German ultimatum.Unless within twelve hours Russia begins to demobilise against Germany and Austria-Hungary, the German government will be compelled to give the order to mobilise.Sazonov says this is a “technical impossibility” and Germany is “overestimating the significance of a Russian mobilisation”. He asks Pourtalès if German mobilisation […]
Afternoon: Pourtalès sees the Tsar. Russian mobilisation will have a terrible impact in Berlin and will end the mediation efforts.Pourtalès says “…. the only thing which in my opinion might yet prevent war was a withdrawal of the mobilisation order”.The Tsar says on technical grounds a recall of the order issued is no longer possible.The […]
Afternoon: Szápáry changes his mind and goes to see Sazonov. He explains his instructions predate Russian mobilisation. Sazonov again says that as the Russian army will not attack “mobilisation has no significance”.Szápáry says that Vienna welcomes talks and is even ready to discuss the text of the ultimatum as far as interpretation is concerned. Sazonov […]
Morning: Sazonov amends the latest peace proposals from Grey and circulates his new version to the other Great Powers.If Austria-Hungary agrees to stop its invasion of Serbia, recognises the European nature of the crisis, and agrees the other Powers shall enquire how Serbia can satisfy Austria-Hungary’s demands, “Russia engages to maintain her waiting attitude”. He […]
10.43 A.M.: Paléologue telegrams Paris saying “An order has been issued for the general mobilisation of the Russian army”. He had known of the decision to mobilise the previous evening. For security reasons the message goes via Sweden and doesn’t get to Paris until 8.30 P.M.
Early morning: Pourtalès protests to Sazonov. Vienna has agreed to resume direct talks. Germany had been assured Russia would take no military steps. Sazonov tries to explain that the measures are entirely precautionary and that Russia is not making any irrevocable moves. Pourtalès asks to see the Tsar.
Russian red mobilisation notices appear throughout St Petersburg and other parts of the country. German ambassador protests to the Russian Foreign Minister. Vienna has agreed to talks. The Foreign Minister says Russia’s military measures are entirely precautionary. The ambassador asks to see the Tsar. The ambassador tells the Tsar that Russian mobilisation will have a […]
9.15 P.M.: Paléologue has confirmation from Sazonov. He wires Paris that Russia has intelligence that German war preparations are far advanced (this is not true, they are not) and has decided to proceed secretly to the first measures of general mobilisation.
4.31 P.M.: Paléologue has a wire from Viviani asking him to urge Russia to do nothing to give Germany a pretext for mobilisation. Paléologue responds “this very morning I have recommended to M. Sazonov to avoid all military measures that might furnish Germany with a pretext for general mobilisation”. He adds in the course of […]
3.10 P.M., Peterhof: Sazonov sees the Tsar. Despite the proposal he has made to Pourtalès in the early hours that morning he tells the Tsar there is no hope of peace.Germany is determined on war and is well advanced in its military preparations (this is not true). Sazonov talks at length, and finally, the Tsar […]
Morning: Sazonov tells Paléologue and Buchanan about the solution he discussed earlier with Pourtalès. He also says for strategic reasons Russia cannot postpone converting partial mobilisation into general mobilisation as she knows Germany is preparing.
Morning: Sazonov then sees Yanushkevich and Sukhomlinov. They are worried that partial mobilisation will wreck the plans for general mobilisation. Yanushkevich phones the Tsar who refuses to reverse his decision. However, he agrees to see Sazonov at 3.00 P.M. [More]
In response to question from German ambassador Russian Foreign Minister says Russia would suspend military preparations if Austria was ready to eliminate the points in its ultimatum that infringe on Serbia’s sovereignty. Russian civil and military leaders are still strongly in favour of general mobilisation. Russian Foreign Minister sees the Tsar and talks at length. […]
About 2.00 A.M. next day: Pourtalès asks to see Sazonov. He has a more positive message from Bethmann than the one delivered that afternoon warning that Russian mobilisation would compel Germany to mobilise.Bethmann is trying to get a fresh formal assurance of Austria’s “désintéressement” in Serbian territory. Sazonov is still very doubtful about Vienna’s intentions […]
1.20 A.M. next day: The Tsar wires the Kaiser thanking him for his message [W2]. He says Russia’s military measures started five days before are on account of Austria-Hungary’s actions and are defensive. He hopes with all his heart they won’t interfere with the Kaiser’s role as mediator which the Tsar greatly values. [N3]
Around midnight: Sazonov sees Pourtalès for the fourth time to tell him of the Russian decision for partial mobilisation. He asks Berlin to take part in four-power talks aimed at persuading Vienna to drop demands detrimental to Serbian sovereignty. Pourtalès is not optimistic, saying that talks are almost impossible “now that Russia had resolved on […]
11.00 P.M. and shortly after: Paléologue is told about the decision for general mobilisation and prepares a telegram for Paris saying the Russian government has decided “…. to order the mobilisation of thirteen corps destined to operate against Austria and secretly to commence general mobilisation”. At the last minute news arrives of the Tsar’s change […]
9.40 P.M.: The Tsar gets a message from the Kaiser [W2] asking for Russian restraint while he tries to mediate in Vienna. The Tsar decides he cannot ignore this appeal and immediately countermands the order for general mobilisation. Instead, he orders partial mobilisation. [More]
9.00 – 10.00 P.M.: General Dobrorolski completes the collection of signatures for the mobilisation order and goes to the St Petersburg Central Telegraph Office to wire the order across the country. The telegrams are ready shortly after 10.00 P.M.
8.00 P.M.: Austria-Hungary’s refusal of direct talks, the bombardment of Belgrade, the latest message from Pourtalès, which sounds like an ultimatum, together with the military reasons against partial mobilisation persuade Sazonov war cannot be avoided and Russia must order general mobilisation.He meets Yanushkevich and Sukhomlinov and they decide “in view of the small probability of […]
Soon after: The Tsar phones Sazonov to tell him about the message from the Kaiser [W1] which sounds friendly. It contrasts with what Pourtalès has just said to Sazonov. The Tsar telegrams the Kaiser thanking him for his conciliatory telegram and asks why the ambassador’s official message is in such a different tone. [N2]
7.00 P.M.: Pourtalès calls on Sazonov for their third meeting that day. He carries out Bethmann’s instruction and tells Sazonov that “further progress of Russian mobilisation measures would compel us to mobilise and that then European war would scarcely be prevented”.Sazonov sees the German message as an ultimatum. It convinces him that Berlin is behind […]
Afternoon: Szápáry calls on Sazonov. Though Austria-Hungary will not discuss the ultimatum or the Serbian reply, it is ready for a “far broader basis for the exchange of views” and does not wish to damage Russian interests. Sazonov says the Austro-Hungarian note infringes Serbian sovereignty though, oddly, he says it is “quarrelling over words”. He […]
Afternoon: Sazonov calls back Pourtalès to tell him Berchtold has rejected talks and Russia is now supporting the British proposal. Pourtalès emphasises that Austria-Hungary is not going “to submit to any kind of European court of arbitration” and repeats his warning that any form of Russian mobilisation would be “a grave mistake”. [More]
Afternoon: Sazonov tells Buchanan that Russia is not ordering general mobilisation though that is what the military recommend. He also says Russia now supports Grey’s four-power mediation proposal as Vienna is rejecting direct talks with St Petersburg.
Morning: Sazonov reads Shebeko’s report that Berchtold has refused to authorise further direct talks with St. Petersburg. (Shebeko did not realise the refusal covered only talks on the Serbian reply, not other talks.)
11.00 A.M.: Pourtalès calls on Sazonov to tell him Berlin is still pushing Vienna to talk with St Petersburg and clarify “the aims and extent” of its actions in Serbia. Sazonov says he wants to talk with Vienna but there is no sign Vienna wants to talk.He tells Pourtalès Russia is about to order mobilisation […]
German ambassador tells Russian Foreign Minister Berlin is still pushing Vienna to talk. Foreign Minister says there is no sign Vienna wants to talk. While talking with the Austrian ambassador the Foreign Minister hears of the Austrian shelling of Belgrade and assumes the invasion of Serbia has begun. He tells ambassador there can be no […]
7.20 A.M. next day: On his own initiative Yanushkevich wires the commanders of all Russia’s military districts giving them advance warning that general mobilisation will be ordered on 30 July. Such a message shows how the Russian military are independent of the civilian leaders as in Germany.
After return from Peterhof: Sazonov also telegrams Benckendorff in London saying “It would be necessary for England with all speed to take action in view of mediation and for Austria at once to suspend military measures against Serbia. Otherwise mediation will only furnish a pretext for delay in bringing the matter to a decision and […]
After return from Peterhof: Sazonov telegrams Berlin, repeated to Vienna, Paris, London and Rome: “In consequence of the Austrian declaration of war on Serbia, we shall tomorrow (the 29 July) proclaim mobilisation in the districts of Odessa, Kiev, Moscow and Kazan. Inform the German Government of this and lay stress on the absence of any […]
6.00 P.M., Peterhof: Sazonov tells the Tsar about Austria-Hungary’s declaration of war on Serbia. He also explains the mobilisation problem and proposes the preparation of two ukazes (orders), one for partial, and one for general mobilisation, so that a decision on which to use can be left to the last moment in light of the […]
Later: Sazonov talks to General Yanushkevich who now follows the advice of his military colleagues and argues strongly for general mobilisation as the only feasible option.Sazonov understands the problem but is still inclined to partial mobilisation as a means of putting pressure on Vienna. Sazonov leaves to see the Tsar.
Later: Paléologue calls on Sazonov. Paléologue does not pass on the full message from Poincaré and Viviani of the previous day omitting the part about the two countries working together for a solution “in the interests of the general peace”.He tells Sazonov of “the complete readiness of France to fulfil her obligations as an ally […]
St Petersburg: Military intelligence on the size of the Austro-Hungarian mobilisation alarms the Russian general staff. It is larger than the force they have calculated Austria-Hungary would need to invade and subdue Serbia. Austria-Hungary must be preparing to ward of any Russian threat on its northern border.
3.00 P.M.: Sazonov sees Buchanan. Sazonov says Russia is no longer satisfied by Austria-Hungary’s statements regarding Serbian independence.In response to Buchanan asking what Russia would do to prevent further escalation of the crisis Sazonov says the only way to avert war is for Britain to say it will side with Russia and France. This would […]
Morning: Sazonov sees Szápáry who still has no instructions from Vienna about the talks over the ultimatum that Sazonov wants to have. Szápáry repeats the pledge not to annex Serbian territory. Sazonov also asks to see the full dossier from the Austro-Hungarian government concerning Serbian complicity in the assassination.Szápáry reports to Vienna that Sazonov clutches […]
Morning: Sazonov sees Pourtalès and angrily accuses him of being part of a joint Austro-Hungarian and German plot to provoke war.Pourtalès walks out of the meeting but returns later.Sazonov says the Serbian reply gives Vienna all it could want. If it was not accepted it simply proves Austria-Hungary wants war. Pourtalès says he has reports […]
Morning: Sazonov is worried and in a bad mood because Vienna has not replied to his proposal for direct talks. Buchanan calls on him and asks if Russia will accept Vienna’s assurances on Serbian independence and integrity.Sazonov says “No engagement that Austria might take on these two points would satisfy Russia”. He tells Buchanan that […]
Austria has not responded to the proposal to have direct talks with Russia Russian Foreign Minister tells German ambassador he thinks Germany is in a plot with Austria to provoke war Foreign Minister tells British ambassador the only way to avert war is for Britain to say it will side with Russia and France. This […]
Afternoon: General Danilov, the man in charge of mobilisation plans, arrived back in St Petersburg on Sunday evening from an inspection tour. He is strongly opposed to partial mobilisation believing it jeopardises any general mobilisation that might follow.He persuades Yanushkevich to call a staff conference which concludes from a practical military point of view the […]
During the day: Sukhomlinov sends for Major Eggeling and gives him his word of honour no order for mobilisation has been issued. Purely preparatory measures are being taken. If Austria crosses the Serbian frontier there will be mobilisation in the districts facing Austria. Eggeling says even mobilisation against Austria must be regarded as dangerous.
Morning: Sazonov is in a good mood when he sees Pourtalès. He thinks the Serbian answer is a way forward. He tells him “the moment has come to seek the means by an exchange of views among the Powers” and to “build a golden bridge” for Austria. He is confident the Austrians will negotiate. Pourtalès […]
Morning: Sazonov has studied the Serbian reply to the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum. He wires all Russian ambassadors saying it “…. exceeds all our expectations in its moderation and readiness to offer Austria the fullest satisfaction. We cannot understand in what Austria’s demand can still consist unless she seeks a pretext for a campaign against Serbia”.
Morning: Buchanan calls on Sazonov to put forward London’s idea for an ambassadors’ conference. Sazonov prefers the direct talks which he believes he has arranged with Austria-Hungary on the modification of the ultimatum. He says if they fail he is willing to accept the British proposal if accepted by other powers or any other that […]
Russia prefers direct talks with Austria rather than the British conference proposal but it is willing to pursue any mediation supported by other European Powers. Russian Foreign Minister tells German ambassador it must be possible to give Serbia a well-merited lesson while respecting her sovereignty. Russia tells Germany only purely preparatory military measures are being […]
Late evening: Pourtalès sees Sazonov to give him the warning from Berlin that Russian military measures directed at Germany might easily call forth German countermeasures. Sazonov is startled.He tries to reassure Pourtalès and tells him mobilisation will only be ordered if Austria-Hungary takes a hostile attitude to Russia. He also tells him about what he […]
Evening: The German military attaché, Major Eggeling, asks Pourtalès to tell Berlin he regards it “as certain mobilisation ordered in Kiev and Odessa; Warsaw and Moscow doubtful, the rest probably not yet”.
Afternoon: Pourtalès reports to Berlin the view in St Petersburg that the ultimatum could be made acceptable. If Vienna modifies its demands direct talks between Austria-Hungary and Russia should take place and if they succeeded then St Petersburg would be ready to “advise” Belgrade to accept the revised document.Pourtalès adds he has the impression Sazonov’s […]
Afternoon: Acting on word from Pourtalès, Szápáry goes to see Sazonov and the two men meet in a friendlier mood. Sazonov thinks Austria-Hungary’s aims are legitimate but not pursued safely.He wants to review the ultimatum to Serbia.Szápáry is happy to do this but reminds Sazonov he has no instructions from his government to go beyond […]
Morning: Sazonov meets by chance Pourtalès on the train from Tsarskoe Selo to St Petersburg. They both have summer houses near Tsarskoe Selo.Sazonov indicates Russia has peaceful intentions and is willing to find a means of procuring legitimate satisfaction for Austria-Hungary. They discuss mediation options.Pourtalès suggests direct talks between Russia and Austria-Hungary even though this […]
German ambassador suggests to the Russian Foreign Minister that he has direct talks with Austria-Hungary. The Minister says Russia cannot tolerate the reduction of Serbia to a vassal state of Austria. He takes up the German ambassador’s suggestion of direct talks and sees the Austrian ambassador. After going through the ultimatum with the Austrian he […]
Evening: Sukhomlinov warns General Chelius, the German military representative at the Tsar’s court, that Russia will stand by Serbia. An indiscrete Russian general tells Chelius Russian troops are to be mobilised. He also notices manoeuvres are cancelled and regiments returning to their barracks. He wires Berlin saying he believes Russia is starting partial mobilisation against […]
Evening: General Yanushkevich chairs a general-staff conference about the preparatory measures to be taken. He says that it is permissible to go further than the regulations specify to ensure that the preparations are successful.
Later: Sazonov wires Benckendorff and asks him to tell Grey that Austria-Hungary in her treatment of Serbia believed she would meet no opposition from England and “… In the event of the situation becoming more acute … we rely upon England’s not delaying to range herself definitely on the side of Russia and France in […]
Later: In his report to London Buchanan says Sazonov thinks Berlin is gambling on British neutrality. If Britain takes a stand with France and Russia there will be no war.If Britain does not give Russia active support now then Britain will not be able to rely on Russia’s friendly co-operation in Asia involving the protection […]
Later: Paléologue wires Paris that the Council of Ministers has agreed to partial mobilisation against Austria-Hungary if it takes action against Serbia and other preparatory measures are being taken. He doesn’t explain they include pre-mobilisation military measures.
Afternoon: Sazonov sees Paléologue and Buchanan and informs them of the measures approved by the Tsar including the mobilisation of 1.1 million men if necessary. Paléologue repeats that France is unreservedly at Russia’s side.Sazonov says Russian policy is not to allow Austria to crush Serbia and become the predominant power in the Balkans. Sazonov also […]
St Petersburg: The Russians publish an official communique which includes the statement “…. the Imperial Russian government follows attentively the development of the Serbo-Austrian conflict, with respect to which Russia cannot remain indifferent”.
Morning, Krasnoe Selo: The Council of Ministers meets chaired by the Tsar. The meeting endorses the decision to move to partial mobilisation, that is, to mobilise in those military districts facing Austria-Hungary, if it takes action against Serbia.The meeting also agrees that the general staff should immediately implement the measures for the “Period Preparatory to […]
The Tsar agrees that partial mobilisation against Austria can be ordered if necessary. The Council also decides the Army should immediately implement preparatory military measures along the entire Russian European border including the border with Germany as well as Austria. French ambassador repeats that France stands with Russia. Russian Foreign Minister tells British ambassador Germany […]
Evening: Sazonov sees Paléologue again and updates him on the decisions taken by the Council of Ministers. Paléologue telegrams Paris but does not mention the Russians are considering partial mobilisation. He speaks of the need for solidarity with Russia and says “M. Sazonov will endeavour to win the day for ideas of moderation”.
7.00 P.M.: Sazonov sees Pourtalès. Sazonov disagrees with the Austro-Hungarian and German view that the dispute should be localised as it concerns only Vienna and Belgrade. There should be some form of international arbitration. He also says “If Austria-Hungary devours Serbia, we will go to war with her”. Pourtalès takes this to mean Russia will […]
Early evening: Sazonov sees Spalajkovic and condemns the ultimatum saying no sovereign state could accept parts of it.As agreed at the Council of Ministers he says if Serbia is not able to resist the expected attack they should offer no military resistance and instead appeal to the great powers for help. He says Serbia can […]
3.00 P.M.: The Russian Council of Ministers meets and decides if Austria-Hungary takes action against Serbia, to move to partial mobilisation, that is, to mobilise in those military districts facing Austria-Hungary. The Tsar is to be asked to approve the measure the next day.They discuss what advice to give Serbia and Sazonov is to contact […]
Lunchtime: Sazonov has lunch at the French embassy with Paléologue and Buchanan. Paléologue says France will give full diplomatic support to Russia and will fulfil all its alliance obligations. Buchanan points out Britain has no direct interest in Serbia.Sazonov says if there is war Britain will be drawn in and if Britain does not support […]
Morning: Szápáry comes to the Foreign Ministry and tries to read from the document summarising the evidence linking Serbia with the assassination but Sazonov interrupts him. “You mean to make war on Serbia and this is just a pretext”. Both men are angry. Sazonov says “You want to go to war with Serbia; You are […]
10.00 A.M.: On learning the details of the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum Sazonov declares angrily “C’est La guerre Européenne!”. He summons Szápáry. He tells the Tsar by phone that he thinks the ultimatum is designed to be rejected, that Vienna intends to attack, and they must have been given prior German approval. The Tsar orders him to […]
On learning the details of the Austrian ultimatum the Russian Foreign Minister declares angrily “C’est La guerre Européenne!” The French ambassador tells him France will give Russia its full support and fulfil its alliance obligations. The British ambassador says Britain has no direct interest in Serbia. Russian Council of Ministers decides to ask Tsar to […]
St Petersburg: Paléologue draws up a communique “The two governments have discovered that their views and intentions for the maintenance of the European balance of power, especially in the Balkan Peninsula, are absolutely identical”.Viviani changes this to “… the two friendly and allied governments … are in entire agreement in their views on the various […]
4.00 A.M.: Sazonov sends instructions to Shebeko to see Berchtold and “cordially but firmly” to warn him of the dangerous consequences of making demands of a character unacceptable “to the dignity of Serbia”.Austria-Hungary should do nothing to compromise Serbian independence.The French have agreed to send similar instructions to their ambassador in Vienna but in both […]
The Tsar and the French President watch a military review of 70,000 troops. French and Russians each send a message to Austria cordially but firmly warning of the dangerous consequences of making demands unacceptable Serbia. French Presidential party leaves Russia by ship for state visits to Sweden, Denmark and Norway.
22 July, Krasnoe Selo: During a dinner held by Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich, the commander of the Imperial Guard and a cousin of the Tsar, for the French visitors, his wife and sister-in-law talk openly and enthusiastically about war with Germany and Austria and the recovery of Alsace-Lorraine by France.In his diary Poincaré contrasts their […]
21-22 July: Poincaré gets worrying reports from Paris. Jules Cambon has reported from Berlin that Germany will not act as a mediator and will give its full support to Austria-Hungary’s demarche at Belgrade.A report from Italy says Germany will make no effort to restrain Austria, and Vienna believes Russia will let Serbia be violated.A further […]
21 July, afternoon: Poincaré also speaks to Szápáry at the reception and expresses his sympathy concerning the assassinations in Sarajevo.While talking about the Austro-Hungarian judicial inquiry he implies the results will be suspect by mentioning two earlier Austro-Hungarian inquiries that produced false evidence.He points out to Szápáry that if demands are made on Serbia that […]
21 July, afternoon: During a diplomatic reception Buchanan tells Poincaré he fears Austria-Hungary is looking for a pretext to attack Serbia and suggests direct talks between Russia and Austria-Hungary in Vienna.Poincaré rejects this as “very dangerous at the present” and suggests instead a joint Anglo-French demand for moderation in Vienna.
21 July, morning: The Tsar and Poincaré meet again. They talk about the tension between Britain and Russia in Persia. They believe local interests are the cause and neither Britain nor Russia can be blamed.The Tsar says he will not allow Persia to cause a division between Britain and Russia.According to Poincaré, the Tsar is […]
20 July, 2.00 P.M.: The French Presidential party arrives at Kronstadt harbour. Poincaré has a one-to-one conversation with the Tsar on his yacht as they go ashore.They discuss matters concerning the alliance between the two countries including the French efforts to maintain a large army. Both men are keen to reaffirm the diplomatic and military […]
18 July: Szápáry calls on Sazonov. Following Berchtold’s instructions not to say anything that might reveal what was being planned in Vienna Szápáry says his government is interested only in putting an end to terrorism and is convinced the Serbian government will prove itself to be accommodating with respect to demands from Vienna.In light of […]
18 July: Sazonov shortly after tells Buchanan that anything in the shape of an ultimatum at Belgrade cannot leave Russia indifferent and she might be forced to take some precautionary military measures. Buchanan wires this information to London.
18 July: Sazonov sees Pourtalès. He counters Pourtalès’ claim the assassination originated in Serbia and Austria-Hungary cannot tolerate the agitation coming out of BelgradeHe says the problems with the Serb subjects of the Empire are mainly the result of Austro-Hungarian misgovernment. And, if the Austro-Hungarian government intended to break the peace it would have to […]
18 July: In light of the alarming information Schilling himself goes to meet Sazonov at the train station on his return to St Petersburg and updates him. They agree a way has to be found to make it clear to the Austro-Hungarian leaders that Russia will oppose any move against Serbia’s independence.
Russian Foreign Minister tells German ambassador the problems that Austria has with its Serb subjects are the result of Austrian misgovernment. He says privately that anything like an ultimatum to Serbia might force Russia to take precautionary military measures. French President on a state visit to Russia confirms the importance of the Franco-Russian military alliance. […]
16 July: Shebeko also sends details of a speech by Tisza in the Hungarian Parliament. Tisza had said the clarification of relations between Austria-Hungary and Serbia did not necessarily mean warlike complications but every state must be ready for war if all peaceful solutions are exhausted.
16 July: Carlotti, the Italian ambassador, gives his impression to Schilling that Austria-Hungary is capable of taking an irrevocable step in regard to Serbia in the belief that Russia will not take any forcible measures to protect Serbia.Schilling says Russia will not permit any weakening or humiliation of Serbia.
16 July: Shebeko reports from Vienna information he has received from the British ambassador that the Austro-Hungarian government is planning to make demands on Serbia that would be unacceptable to any independent State.The original source of the information is a retired Austrian diplomat Count Lutzow, who has been told this in a long and surprisingly […]
14 July: Russian intelligence has broken the Austro-Hungarian diplomatic code. It learns that Vienna is asking its embassy in St Petersburg when the French President will be leaving St Petersburg after his State visit.The Russians have also broken the Italian diplomatic code and they know the contents of the message sent by the Italian Foreign […]
13 July: In a conversation with Pourtalès, Sazonov denies the Austro-Hungarian press assertions that the Sarajevo outrage is the result of a pan-Serb plot.He says there is till now not the slightest proof and it is utterly unjust to hold the Serbian government responsible for the acts of a few callow youths.
Russian Foreign Minister denies Austrian press assertions that the assassinations are the result of a pan-Serb plot. It is unjust to hold the Serbian government responsible for the acts of a few youths. Russian ambassador in Vienna passes on information from British ambassador regarding Austria’s intention to make unacceptable demands on Serbia.
8 July: Czernin, the Austrian chargé d’affaires in St Petersburg, mentions to Sazonov the possibility that the Austro-Hungarian government might demand the support of the Serbian government in an investigation within Serbia of the assassinations.Sazonov says this would make a very bad impression in Russia. The Austrians should drop this idea “lest they set their […]