Russia, Thursday, 23rd July

4.00 A.M. Sazonov sends instructions to Shebeko to see Berchtold and "cordially but firmly" to warn him of the dangerous consequences of making demands of a character unacceptable "to the dignity of Serbia".
Austria-Hungary should do nothing to compromise Serbian independence.
The French have agreed to send similar instructions to their ambassador in Vienna but in both cases the instructions are too late.
The Austro-Hungarian ultimatum to Serbia has already been delivered.

St Petersburg The Tsar and Poincaré watch a military review of 70,000 men.

St Petersburg Paléologue draws up a communique "The two governments have discovered that their views and intentions for the maintenance of the European balance of power, especially in the Balkan Peninsula, are absolutely identical".
Viviani changes this to "... the two friendly and allied governments ... are in entire agreement in their views on the various problems which concern for peace and the balance of power in Europe has laid before the powers, especially in the Balkans".

Brief Issues facing Russia [More]

Brief The French and Russians meeting in St Petersburg [More]

Brief What the Russians knew about Austro-Hungarian intentions [More]